Barbara Neville A3 section 9:The Psycho-Physical

Bridge Personal no 0/01/028 date 20/7/11


The nervous system controls all the body’s functions. There are three different sections that deal with separate parts of the body. The central nervous system [CNS] is the brain and the spinal cord: the nerves are called the peripheral nervous system [PNS] and the autonomic nervous system [ANS] this is also called the sympathetic or parasympathetic system.

The CNS is the central system; the PNS are the nerves that connect the CNS to the organs and muscles of the body. This sends motor impulses, to the voluntary muscles of the body. [1]p306


The ANS is self-controlling; it controls unconscious systems like breathing, digesting food and blood circulation. And involuntary muscles like the blood vessels, soft abdominal organs, bladder and glands like saliva and sweat glands.

The [ANS} is a series of ganglia; these are masses of nerve cells that are situated outside of the brain and spinal cord. Ganglia often interconnect with other ganglia to form a plexus. [2]p336


The brain and the spinal cord is made up of many nerves fibers that are called white and grey matter. The spinal cord runs from the neck to the hip area. It carries nerve messages between the brain and the body. It monitors and regulates the body's actions and reactions and continuously receives sensory information, it analysis’s data and responds accordingly with bodily actions and functions. [3]p309


The endocrines system is a set of organs called glands; they keep the basic function of the body under control and balanced and they regulate mood, growth, development and tissue function.

This system is in charge of body processes that happen slowly, such as cell growth. Faster processes like breathing and body movement are controlled by the nervous system [4] p289


Nerve impulses are small electric currants that travel through a single cell to carry information

from one end of the cell, the receptor, to the other end, the dendrites. All nerve cells have these. There is a small gap in between these two and neuron transmitters carry the impulse across the gap, this is a chemical that binds the receptors to the next nerve cell triggering changes in the receiving cell that sends the electrical signal down to its axon where it release’s the neurotransmitters that are picked up by the next receiving nerve cell. The process repeats itself until the impulse reaches its destination.

Some neurotransmitters excite the neighboring cells others inhibit the cells. [5]

Charkas, auras and acupuncture points in the body are energies that are not as dense as our physical body but they are still an energy or vibration that directly pertains to our body and our lives.  [6]. Energy has a spectrum of vibration that goes from the highest to the lowest. So the energy of the charka, auras and meridian lines must be part of that spectrum that is beyond visual perception, but we can feel it and some can see it.

Charkas stem from Buddhism and other relegious sources.  The aura and meridian lines also have their roots in ancient times. More up to date information proves that there is an invisible connection with earth universe and all living things. It can be called the L field or divine matrix it is an invisible energy that binds all life together. The theory says this matrix has a consciousness and it holds the blue print to all organized physical life. And this energy produces an aura around live things.

Dr Kilner in 1800s proved that the aura did exist by inventing a slide to look through to see the aura around the human body and later Kirlian photography was discovered.

The charkas have not been proven scientifically, research says the energy produced by certain collection of nerves register a higher level of vibration than other nerves in the body.  It is thought the charkas are connected to the endocrine system of the body through the main glands of the body. The acupuncture system has been researched and is found to aid health by balancing our chi or vital energy.

The basis of the endocrine system is hormones and glands. They are the body's chemical messengers. Hormones transfer information and instructions from one set of cells to another. Each type of hormone is designed to affect only certain cells. Once a hormone is secreted it goes into the bloodstream and then to the cells designed to receive its message.

A gland is made up of a group of cells that produces and secretes chemicals. They select and remove materials from the blood, process them, and secrete the finished chemical product for use somewhere in the body.

The major glands are:The hypothalamus gland it is in the lower part of the brain and is the main link between the endocrine and nervous systems. The carotid plexus is connected to this gland and cranial nerves.

The pituitary gland is at the base of the brain it makes hormones that control several other endocrine glands. This glands hormone can be influenced by emotions, changes in the seasons and feelings this information comes from the hypothalamus.

It is divided into two parts: one regulates the thyroid, adrenals, and reproductive glands the other helps control the balance of water in the body, it produces endorphins that reduce feelings of pain and hormones that signals the reproductive organs.

The thyroid gland is in the neck. It’s hormones control the rate at which cells burn fuels. It is connected to the pharyngeal plexus.                 

Attached to the thyroid are four tiny glands called the parathyroid. They release a hormone, which regulates the level of calcium in the blood; if the level rises the parathyroid turns off the process this is called a negative feedback.


The adrenal glands have two parts; one produces hormones that regulate the salt and water balance in the body and the body's response to stress, metabolism, the immune system, and sexual development and function.

The other produces adrenaline this increases blood pressure and heart rate when the body experiences stress. This gland is connected to the solar or celiac plexus.

This is the main plexus for the abdominal region and affects the liver, the stomach, the spleen, the kidney and the pancreas.

The pancreas controls the digestive system, it produces two hormones that maintain the level of glucose in the blood that keeps the body supplied with fuel

The pineal gland is located in the middle of the brain. It secretes melatonina hormone that may help regulate your sleep pattern.

The gonads are the reproductive glands; testosterone is produced by the male, estrogen and progesterone by the female these hormones controls changes at puberty and are located in the pelvic region.

The ANS is made up of 3 groups of ganglia. These are the cranial automatic system, the sympathetic system proper, and the sacral autonomic system.  The cranial and sacral autonomic parts can be grouped together and called the parasympathetic system.

The parasympathetic and the sympathetic system work as a unit to keep the body in balance an example is there are fibers that increase and others that decrease the rate of the heartbeat. When this happens the opposite impulses are carried by the sympathetic and parasympathetic respectively.

The cranial autonomic system is made up of ganglia and fibers that connect to the cranial nerves that control the movement of the eye and runs through to the heart, bronchi and alimentary tract.


The sympathetic system consist of two chains of ganglia one either side of the front of the vertebral column.

They are connected to the corresponding nerve root of the spinal cord by fibers, some collect together to form a single large ganglia. Some of these ganglia nerves are collected into groups of plexuses.

The sacral autonomic system supplies parasympathic fibers to the pelvis, the rectum, bladder, uterus and reproductive organs. The plexus connected to this area is the pelvic plexus and the coccygeal plexus that is at the base of the spine.


The brain is in sections called lobes these deal with different applications of the body.

There are two cerebral hemispheres of cerebrum, the cerebellum, the mid brain, the poms, and the medulla oblongata. Each hemisphere is described as having frontal, parietal, temparol, occipital cerebellum and brain stem. These correspond with the names of the skull bone.


The frontal lobe deals with reward, attention, short-term memory tasks, planning and drive.

The temporal lobe with auditory perception, it is used in the processing of words, phrases, signs and symbols in both speech and vision.

The occipital lobe, is the visual processing centres its part of the brain that contains most of the structure of the visual cortex.


The parietal lobe takes sensory information to determine spatial sense and navigation. This means that this lobe can map objects seen visually into coordinated positions



The brain is divided into two parts the higher centers and the lower centers. The higher center is the seat of consciousness, mind, memory and will. The lower is in the cerebellum and the brain stem and controls breathing, heart rate, and other unconscious functions.

The neocortex, which is part of the cerebral cortex, is the center of higher-order thinking, learning, and memory. The cerebellum is responsible for the body's balance, posture, and the coordination of movement.



The cerebral cortex/ grey matter focuses on memory, attention, perceptual awareness, thought, language, and consciousness and it collects to form the basal ganglia and the hypothalamus the ganglia these work to modulate muscular movement.


The spinal cord lies in the vertebral canal. It starts at the medulla oblongata that is at the base of the brain.

There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves. These are 8 cervical, 12 thoracic or dorsal, 5 lumber, 1 coccyges.

The nerves from the lumber, sacral and coccygeal regions are in the lower spine where the spinal cord does not reach.

There is white and grey matter in the spinal cord that work with the motor and sensory functions.


Some nerves come out of the spinal cord and join together to form a plexus. The cervical nerves and sacral nerves form two plexus.

The cervical plexus lies in the upper part of the neck; these nerves are distributed to skin muscles of the head and neck. Another branch of these plexus passes down the neck to enter the thorax where it is linked to the heart it then terminates in the diaphragm.

There is a brachial plexus that’s in the lower part of the neck the nerve of the arms come from this plexus.

The 12 thoracic nerves run forward to the abdomen wall and skin that covers the thorax and the front of the abdomen.

The lumberyard plexus supple the legs ankle and feet.


Charkas are models of the way the subtle energy [chi] in our bodies can be networked into gathering points, this is thought to be similar to the way nervous energy may be net-worked in our solar plexus. Buddhist yogis developed one of the earliest models of the charkas fifteen hundred years ago.

The charkas are not physical. They interact with the physical body through the endocrine and nervous system. Each one is associated with one of the main endocrine glands, and groups of nerves called a plexus.

All senses, perceptions and all possible states of awareness, everything you experience, can be divided into seven categories that can be associated with a particular charka. 

Charkas are situated at the top of the head, forehead, throat, heart, and solar plexus, the navel and at the bottom of the pelvis.

The root charka is related to the adrenal gland, the large intestine and the rectum. It influence on the kidneys.

The navel charka works with the ovaries or testicles. It also belongs to the reproduction system, the urinary bladder and kidneys.
The solar plexus works with the pancreas, the liver, gall bladder, stomach, spleen and the small intestine.
The heart charka works with the thymus and belongs to the heart and the arms.

The throat charka corresponds to the thyroid gland and works with the lungs and the throat.
The third eye (forehead) charka belongs to the brain, face, nose, eyes etc and is connected to the pituitary gland.
The crown charka does not correspond to an organ but is related to the whole being and is connected to the pineal gland.

The word Charka is Sanskrit and means a wheel, it will spin in relation to the energy level of your system. It regulates the flow of energy through our energetic body and reflect decisions we make concerning how we choose to respond to conditions in our life. They open and close when we decide what to think, and feel, and how we experience the world around us.

When you feel stress, the tension is detected by the nerves of the plexus associated with that charka, and is transmitted to the parts of the body controlled by that plexus. When the tension continues over a period of time, the person creates a symptom on the physical level.

All living cells give off invisible energies. Groups of living tissue give off a sort of light (aura) that can be seen on a Kirlian photo. Specialized groups of cells that make up physical organs create more organized energy patterns. The chakras change energy from one level to another by distributing Chi, Prana or Mana to the physical body. This is partly done through the endocrine system that regulates other systems in the body.

The concept of an aura dates back to ancient times. Walter John Kilner [1847–1920], a medical electrician at St. Thomas Hospital London started research into auras by using a specially prepared glass coated in a dye to view a subject who stood against a black background and the aura could be seen.  It looked like an etheric double connected to the physical body with two layers and that it was probably ultraviolet radiation and was not affected by electromagnets.

Kilner published his studies in 1911 proposing its existence, nature and possible use in medical diagnosis and prognosis. He thought that the human energy field was an indicator of health and mood.

By using Kilner Goggles and lights you could train the eyes to see electromagnetic radiation outside the normal spectrum of visible light and then you could dispense with the apparatus. Kilner did not recommend that you keep viewing the aura through the lenses. Because the toxicity of the chemicals.

Kilner stated the longer you look through the blue colored lens, the more sensitive the eyes become to ultraviolet and higher light spectrums. It’s in this range that Kilner believed auras occur. In 1880, Baron Karl von Reichenbach did research to investigate energy coming from the poles of a magnet and light coming from crystals and fingertips; he called it the Odic Force. Dr. John Ashburner confirmed this.

Dr. Shafica Karagulla thought the energy field could be used to heal, she could see auras and that variations in this field could be used for diagnosis of aliments. She thought that the physical body was surrounded by a physical energy field, an emotional field and was enveloped by a mental field that extended 24 inches from the body

 Dr. Edward Aubert put forward the concept of aura and chakra integration when five 'vortices' were seen, which could be associated with five chakras in Hindu philosophy. He said, "It seems that we live in a vast ocean of interlacing energies" and "Each person appears to have his own method of selecting energy".

 In the 1930s, Harold Saxton Burr claimed success in measure energy fields emanating from a living organism and called it the Life Field. A year Kirlian photography was discovered.

John Pierrakos was a pioneer in the holistic practice of medicine and psychology. He is known for being the first western psychiatrist to bridge psychology and spirituality.

John used his knowledge of the human energy field and the chakras to assist him in helping people heal he was able to see and perceive the human energy field and the chakras.

Traditional acupuncture is a healthcare system based on ancient principles that go back 2000 years. It looks at pain and illness as signs that the body is out of balance.

A traditional acupuncturist uses ultra-fine sterile needles inserted into specific acupuncture points to re-establish the free flow of chi or vital energy to restore the balance and trigger the body’s natural healing response. They believe that illness and pain occure when the body’s chi cannot flow freely.

There are several hundred of these points that are located along the meridians these connect to points across the anatomy and affect a specific organ or other part of the body.

There is not much physical evidence for the existence of acupuncture points but research suggests that acupuncture points may be associated with the activation of specific brain areas using functional magnetic resonance imaging or areas of low electrical impedance in the body.


[1]  Anatomy and Physiology for nurses and students of human biology by W Gordon Sears & RS Winwood p 306.

[2]    Anatomy and Physiology  p 336

[3]    Anatomy and Physiology  p 309

[4]    Anatomy and Physiology   p289

[5]   Atlas of Anatomy eagle Editions p30

[6]   The Kabalion by Three Initiates  p 55